Photograph of painting by Dublin Artist, Neil Douglas,
Courtesy of the Artist.









Iseult Catherine O'Brien

Montessori Teacher & Supervisor | Volunteer Tutor with Second Level Students |  

A Member of The Tutors' Association







Please see the ERSI January 2019 Bulletin ~ 



“Later is Better: Mobile phone ownership and

child academic development, evidence from

 a longitudinal study” 



in the last Section of this Post.








Topics covered below include ~














I am grateful to Rae Pica for introducing me to the very important work of Cindy Eckard, which can be found at the following ~ @screensandkids   and  Her work on the effects of overuse of blue-light emitting devices on eyes, and eyesight, from early years is important information for us all.



I have come across a very accessible, non-preachy, site to help families get a better balance in their lives ~ exercise, diet, recipes, screen time usage, and other suggestions ~ ~ useful for all ages.











I have been banging on for years about the dangers of over-use, and prolonged late night use, of blue light emitting devices,  and the damage caused to young people's health, academic achievements, long-term cognitive and memory problems, plus the difficulties that follow from not being able to live up to their own and their families' expectations.



This concern has been compounded by the growing evidence I've seen around me, have discussed at length with therapists and software technicians, and heard from people I know who work with young people, that online gambling has got to an extremely dangerous level with young people - with children also involved.



One has to wonder how children can afford such a habit?












The BLUE-VIOLET LIGHT which helps us wake naturally, and which is responsible for the increased mental activity in daylight hours, especially in Spring and Summer, and which is beneficial in concentrating on work and study, can also cause us problems.  When we awake to dark mornings, with few hours of daylight, we must acknowledge the consequences for our brain activity. We get most of our Vitamin D from sunlight, and many people are unaware that they should use a supplement during the dark days.













IT IS NECESSARY to make a conscious effort to blink at speed and at frequent intervals while using a computer, as we actually blink less frequently while looking at a screen.



Using an intensive lubricating eye care product, which is both phosphate and preservative-free, is helpful for avoiding dry, itchy eyes. 




'Dry eye' is a frequent, itchy, and very irritating result of prolonged computer use, and which can lead to an eye infection, resulting from excessive rubbing and scratching of the eyeball, especially when tired.  




If you bring any kind of computer-based work home, there can be a notion that working surrounded by one's own things, is working in a more relaxed environment and, so, is less stressful.




However, we fool ourselves!



Some evenings, work is spasmodic due to continual interruptions; sometimes, we get distracted by household chores, and start the work much later than intended.




IN HOPEFULNESS, we may plan to work for a specific period of time, at the end of which we shall cease, finished or not.  That is never how it works out!   We work hour after hour, with the comfort in the back of the mind that the bed is close by. Unfortunately, frequently, we realize suddenly it is 2.00am or 3.00am, or later.  Panic stations! - save the work on the computer, brush the teeth, into bed pronto!




Then, one lies in bed - in the dark and quiet, tossing and turning, growing more frustrated,  the head is racing, and there is no way of relaxing  This can become distressing if it happens on a regular basis.




AWAY FROM THE GLARE of the screen, at a minimum, it will take  at least ONE FULL HOUR for the synapses in the brain to quieten down sufficiently to be able to relax and, eventually, hopefully, to sleep.




Getting into such a habit can lead to chronic exhaustion, making one less efficient, and so perpetuating the unhealthy practice.



This situation, if not dealt with, can lead to considerable  periods of time off work, or off school / college, for stress related illnesses,  becoming seriously run down,  and exhausted due to sleep deprivation.














The following are excerpts from a paper by Dr Ford in the 'Review of Optometry'








By Heather Flint Ford, OD



"The steep rise in personal electronics use and the transition from traditional incandescent lighting sources to compact fluorescent lights (CFL) and light-emitting diodes (LED) is dramatically increasing our exposure to blue light, raising new concerns about ocular health risks.



"Blue light plays an important role in the body: it maintains circadian rhythms, improves alertness and can even be used in conjunction with photodynamic therapy to treat cancerous lesions; however, various types of blue light also pose hazards to our eyes and bodies ...



"...  Blue light has been found to penetrate deeper into the eye than other wavelengths of light, and thus has the potential to cause changes in retinal tissues, including the macula.



Sleep Cycle Disruption

"Blue light exposure at night has been shown to affect the quality of sleep.  Researchers recently tested the effects of using e-readers prior to sleep for four hours versus reading from a traditional book for four hours before sleep each night.



"The study found three notable results: 


  • Exposure to e-readers caused a 10-minute delay in sleep onset versus the control group;


  • The experimental group spent less time in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (109.04 ± 26.25 min versus 120.86 ± 25.32 min in the print-book condition);


  • There was a significant difference between groups in subjective feelings of tiredness and alertness the following morning.4



"The researchers attribute the difference to decreased time spent in REM sleep, given its importance in learning and storing memories.5



"These findings are concerning, given the behavior of our teenagers and young adults, who tend to spend their leisure time using digital devices in the evening prior to bedtime (and indeed all throughout the day).  Concerns already exist that we have a sleep epidemic in the United States — people receive fewer hours of sleep at night than in the past and significantly less than the recommended amounts.  Couple this with reduced sleep from electronic use prior to bedtime, and its resulting next-morning lethargy and lack of alertness, and we are at risk for having an underproductive, fatigued population prone to motor vehicle accidents and errors on the job and in school."





 Please go to the following link for the full Article ~ 




Some alterations in layout, colours of text, capitalisation and headings have been made by me, ICOB.







Published April 27, 2018 in the 'Review of Optometry'







The new legislation aims to create guidelines on limiting students' exposure to screens.




By RO Staff


"Maryland schools are prepared to explore and institute protective measures for children’s vision, and it all started with one parent’s concern.  The legislation, which the state’s governor signed Tuesday, mandates the schools work with health professionals to take preventative measures for digital device associated eye diseases.1 The measures will likely include guidelines for Maryland public schools on how long students can be exposed to screens and how laptops, tablet computers and digital readers can impact a child’s ocular health."



Please go to the following link for the complete article ~





Some alterations in layout, colours of text, capitalisation and headings have been made by me, ICOB.














No matter what time of year it is, if it's a holiday break, or whatever term the children and young people are in school or college, parents, guardians, and carers (PGCs) must be on the look-out at all times. 




Many PGCs are surprized that although their students had been back in the education cycle for quite some time, they still need 'support' and frequent urgings getting into a good sleep / awake balance, in order that they can get up on time, to work to their optimum, and care for their mental and physical health.




This problem with interaction can carry on through the whole year and include the Summer and Christmas Breaks if they have been keeping up with longterm online gaming, gambling, meeting new people - sometimes on porn sites, which often starts off by mistake, but are frequently revisited. 




After a Summer of electronic contact with friends, rather than going out to meet up with a group of friends, and never having a real good, relaxed chat, all together, some young people find being surrounded by classmates, and many other people, surprizingly difficult.





All of this blue-light device activity can make actually meeting people face-to-face very difficult.




All of us who have family living very far away are conscious of how much easier communication is nowadays with Skype, the internet, and other platforms, compared to what it was like for families, even twenty years ago.  However, grandparents will still say, although it is lovely to hear the children's voices, and see their faces, it is JUST NOT the same as HUMAN CONTACT.  


And they are right.






People lose a great deal of the subtleties of communication, when the micro-gestures, and 'tells' are lost while using electronic devices.  We miss the little wince that may indicate a friend is unhappy or worried.  We cannot take someone's hand and ask what's happening.




People who have got out of the habit of meeting up with friends or visiting family easily and frequently, may find it especially difficult to get back into the situation of being among large groups of people, such as at Christmas or New Year parties, Mid-Term Breaks, Spring Break, Summer barbeques,  and Easter Holidays. 




This isolation from one's friends, and the world in general, can happen very quickly, and it is not easy to overcome.




Some people find going out the front door a HUGE problem, and will change clothes a few times, rearrange the sock drawer, anything to avoid going out the door.  All breaks from school / college / university are very good times for PGCs, and the family in general, to pay attention to the social lives, and possible lack of activities, of youngsters, teenagers, and young people in the family.




Are they going out to call on friends and family? 

Do they accept invitations readily and happily, looking forward to dressing up and going out?




Do they think of any excuse not to go out?   

Do they just see a couple of close friends in the bedroom, and never go visiting?




At what time of day do they first appear, and do they seem especially tired and bleary-eyed? 




PEOPLE ARE VERY SOCIAL ANIMALS.  We are hardwired to gather in groups, and we are tactile. 





This seemingly anti-social behaviour can be

put down to teenage mood swings, but it is

much more serious than that.





If we have not seen friends for a while, we will have missed out on many of the little strengthenings of connections that are constantly renewed when meeting up or visiting. 





QUITE QUICKLY, we can become nervous of going out, replying only on email, calls, and text, to keep up communications. These are fine for short term communication ~ but THEY DO NOT fill the gap we need filled by SOCIAL INTERACTION WITH OTHER PEOPLE.





Young people can get VERY cranky as they are trying to work and manage on too little sleep while their proper balance is being sought.   

If they have got into the habit of watching downloads or gaming for long periods during the holidays, getting back into a rhythm of rising on time to get to school / college / university, can be EXTREMELY DIFFICULT to achieve.  If they didn't get back into an appropriate sleeping regime before starting back.  It can be done, but it's not easy.




The brain does not mature until around 25 years, up to 30 years of age.  

To develop FULLY, the brain requires good quality, sustained, sleep. 




These are Simple Facts We Cannot Deny,

No Matter How We May Wish To.





We need to help our students get up on time NOW, no matter if already back in study, as they need to get into a sleep / awake balance, so they may be able to get up on time as soon as possible.  This is not going to be easy for anyone in the family.





In children and young people, that

means nine to ten hours sleep a night.




As I have been told by teachers / tutors at all levels, youngsters and young people frequently arrive in kindergarten / school / college / university, take off the coat, sit at the desk AND, promptly fall asleep.





These children and young people are seriously sleep-deprived.





OFTEN, their families are unaware of nighttime activities. If a young person waits until everyone goes to bed, and then turns on his or her devices, there would not be anyone to see a possible tell-tale light shining from under the bedroom door.




OFTEN, it only comes to light during breaks from school or college, when they are asleep all day, and awake all night.




GAMING is very popular, especially with boys and young men. Once a serious game starts, all notion of time is lost, the game is everything.




GAMBLING online has become a VERY DANGEROUS habit for many youngsters, and even children.  




It can become a habit very quickly.   The incorrect date of birth entered, making one seem over 18 or 21 years, depending on the Rules of the online gambling company and local laws, and youngsters are free to gamble.  I have yet to hear of an online gambling company checking back fully to ensure that their new customer is indeed of an age to gamble legally, and is the legal holder of the credit card being used.




Who is legally responsible for the possibly colossal credit card bills of under-age gamblers?   





Young people and down to quite young children, frequently have many electronic devices in their bedrooms. Young people and teenagers may be watching television, DVDs, YouTube, sports coverage, pornography, downloads, and gaming. 



Inadvertently, anyone can find him or herself on a sordid, sex site.



Pornography sites are being used more often by young men, and boys of early to mid teens, on a regular basis ~ they usually start viewing at 11-12 years of age.




Young children may be viewing cartoons, frequently as a type of electronic 'bedtime story': what else are they watching? 



DO PGCs KNOW just how many hours daily their children spend on their computers or using smartphones?



ARE THEY AWARE of the possible serious negative health consequences?



This isolation and lack of personal interaction can lead to depression.  This can be difficult to recognise, as knowing what came first is difficult to ascertain.  Everything should be done to get a young person to visit his or her GP.

















Decline in Teen Mental Health Attributed to Late Night Stimulation **



By Dr Ramesh Manocha



The neurological dangers implicated in overusing our devices are well-established.  From the incessant cognitive itching to allay novelty bias to a consistent uptick (sic) in distracted driving accidents and deaths to the circadian chaos of excessive blue light, our memory and attention are not the only skills being affected.  While no long-term studies have traced these issues from childhood through adulthood – yet - one simple fact is inarguable: too much screen time is not healthy.



Now a longitudinal study of over eleven hundred high school students in Australia has revealed another disturbing aspect of technology addiction: a decline in mental health.




Poor sleep due to late-night calling and texting is the culprit.  The group of thirteen to sixteen year-olds saw a stark decrease in performance over a four-year period, from 2010-2013.   While previous research has linked the blue light emitted from phones to poor sleep, and sleep is necessary for optimal health and emotional regulation, this Study is considered the first to link all three, even though anecdotally teachers have noticed increasing sluggishness in their students for years.




"Not only was educational performance hindered.  Important social skills were also diminished", says Lynette Vernon, lead researcher of this study at Murdoch University in Perth:



The outcomes of not coping – lower self-esteem, feeling moody, externalising behaviours and less self-regulation, aggressive and delinquent behaviours – the levels increase as sleep problems increased.




It’s not only the light affecting students, Vernon observes.  Cognitive arousal when receiving a text or social media like also keeps the receiver primed for further reaction at a time when their body and mind should be winding down.


Instead of drifting to sleep their brain remains on alert for the next ding.



- Derek Beres


A download from 'Generation Next'.


Read More: Decline in Teen Mental Health Attributed to Late Night Stimulation


Dr Ramesh Manocha | July 10, 2017 at 3:33 pm | Tags: late night texting 

Categories: Uncategorized | URL:





[The colouring, highlighting and underlining of text were added by me, ICOB.]










Safe Kids, Strong Families




Teen watching TV | Striking the Technology 

 Balance: How Much TV is Too Much?





A recent study by the American Academy of Paediatrics shows that increasing consumption of digital media by children could be having a negative impact on their development.



Please see the rest of this article near the end of this Post.











Dark mornings and evenings can be masked by high levels of light in the home.  PGCs need to look to lowering light and sound levels as the evening comes on, from around 4.30-5.00pm in the darker months, reducing them to side lamps in main family rooms.  On brighter evenings, all youngsters should be encouraged to call on friends and play vigorous, physical, games outdoors.  The resultant tiredness would lead to an easier sleep.



The television may need to be turned off or moved to another room. 



A calm, quiet, low-lit, room in which to wind-down after homework and dinner, for catching up on family news, and getting into the best possible frame of mind for a relaxed trip to bed, would of great benefit to all children and young people.  




It's the best way to prepare for bed for anyone of any age.




If children and young people don't start feeling tired, and naturally ready for sleep, their body-clocks are thrown awry.




Darker, quieter, rooms help the natural inclination to sleep.   Sufficient sleep is imperative for children, youngsters, and everyone.




CHILDREN DO THEIR GROWING DURING SLEEP, and their bones continue to develop. It is understood that 90 percent of BONE GROWTH TAKES PLACE DURING SLEEP. 





quality,  SUSTAINED, sleep give a child,

youngster, teenager, and young person

adequate rest.   




This is the necessary amount of sleep for both physical and mental well-being. The human growth hormone is released during this time, resulting in growth spurts.  




SLEEP IS ESSENTIAL for the body to rest, and adequate rest means better physical growth.




immune system; 


brain development;






and information processing; 


as well as many other systems of the brain and the body. 





THIS APPLIES TO EVERYONE, from a child to an older person.

















Sometimes a court case comes along and a whole nation may be held transfixed in horror at the terrifying experiences of the children involved, and the realisation amongst many parents, guardians, carers, and teachers, that they really do not know what's going on in the lives of their children, and that many do not understand the reach of a smartphone or Tablet, and other such devices.




Please see my Post, 'OUR CHILDREN ARE AT RISK ~ WE NEED TO BE VIGILANT', for fuller information on this court case.




Dublin man’s computer had recorded Skype calls between him and two nine-year-old girls.




Updated: The Irish Times, Fri, Jan 26, 2018, 20:30 Reporters: Declan Brennan, Aoife Nic Ardghail. See for full text of Irish Times Articles.





A Dublin man  who possessed thousands of child pornography images and coerced young girls to send him sexually graphic pictures and videos of themselves has been jailed for seven and a half years.




Matthew Horan (26) used Skype, Snapchat, Instagram and Kik, an anonymous instant messaging application, to send and receive child porn images from six identified child users in Ireland and nine unknown users around the world.




A forensic examination of Horan’s computer uncovered recorded Skype calls between him and two nine-year-old-girls, both individually and together. The recordings included footage of these girls engaging in graphic sexual acts.




Dublin Circuit Criminal Court heard Horan would use Kik to share child porn images and videos with unidentified users around the world, most of whom claimed to be young teenagers.




Threat to Share Images

He threatened to share an 11-year-old girl's nude images to her social media accounts if she didn't send him further graphic photos.


In the text exchange between them, this girl repeatedly told Horan she would kill herself.  He continued to coerce her to send more images, the court heard.




Horan pleaded guilty to: two counts in relation to sexually exploiting two girls; two more counts of sexually exploiting a child and one count of distributing child pornography on dates in 2015; possessing child porn at his address on July 11th, 2015; three further counts of sexually exploiting female children through Snapchat and Instagram in the State on dates between May 21st, 2015 and July 7th, 2016; possessing child porn on a Sony mobile phone at his home on July 7th, 2016.  He has no previous convictions.




 Judge Nolan ... said ... "the crimes were all committed for Horan’s indulgence and pleasure and Horan had exploited children in a most horrible way."   He said Horan’s actions would have long-term effects on the victims.


“He knew what he was doing was wrong. He understood the damage and yet he didn’t stop what he was doing,” he said.





[All text in italics is copied from The Irish Times online Articles. Rearrangement of text and headings was added by me, ICOB.]

















I hope the above edited elements of the coverage of the trial would be of general use to children, young people, and the adults in their lives, as an introduction to the topic of staying safe online, on Tablets, smartphones and other devices. 




See here for the full reportage Updated: The Irish Times, Fri, Jan 26, 2018, 20:30

Reporters: Declan Brennan, Aoife Nic Ardghail. for full text of Irish Times Articles.




I suggest that all PGCs, and any adults who play a large part in children's, youngsters' and young adults' lives might read ALL the various articles listed in this Post.   If a child or young teenager has heard of the court case, and wants to know more, reading through the articles together would be useful for both the adult and the child or young person. 




I suggest the adult should read through first, checking the meanings of any technical terms, or any everyday terms that had never seemed so scary previously.  The adult would feel more confident about being able to answer possible questions.   Once armed with information, I believe the PGCs, or significant adults, should start a conversation at a quiet, relaxed time, about the court case, asking if the youngster has heard anything about it.  




It may have been huge in Ireland, but people overseas will be unaware of this court case, and the public's memory fades.  However, it is still an easy to understand case to use as an example.




While bearing in mind that this case focused on young girls, and that boys are equally at risk, I suggest putting these horrible experiences to a positive use, as the basis for study by families, classes, and all students, to check that everyone knows what to look out for, and what to do if there is a fear that personal information has passed to another.



The situation of the young girls would engender both empathy and determination in children, youngsters, and young people.  No-one would want to go through their experiences, and they are easy to imagine. 




I believe having prepared a child by saying what you are about to read with him or her is upsetting, but very important to know about - the adult should just jump in, and trust to his or her relationship with the child,  and that any questions shall be answered.  




Take your time.  Take opportunities to ask if he or she understands what has happened so far.  



It doesn't have to be done all in one evening - it's more important that all the information available and required is mined. 




Be ready to answer questions over weeks and maybe months.   That would be a very positive sign. This is a very big subject, and realisations will hit the young in sudden moments, and after consideration.  Those are the times when question might be formulating to be asked.  We need to stay alert, and ask if there are any questions or suggestions the child or young person wants to put. 




It's easy to become complacent, thinking one knows what's going on.  


This story brings out all the nurturing and fear in any adult.




Don't worry If something comes up that you, the adult, hasn't checked - you should just say straight out, that ~


"I don't understand that, but we'll find out the meaning. 


"We're both learning a good deal of new and really important information because of the bravery of those girls - and pretending we know something when we don't, is not good for either of us.  Information is Power!"




It was a truly shocking case, and sometimes we need a jolt to get motivated.














To help us be clear what devices we need to consider in relation to our children's and young people's welfare, I list below the devices included in The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, Australian Child Health Poll of 21 June 2017.  The Poll is covered in detail below.



A screen-based device is defined as a television, computer, laptop, gaming console, iPhone, Smartphone, iPad and Tablet. 



Given details reported during his court case of the devices and apps used by Matthew Horan, I'm adding SkypeSnapchatInstagramKik, and mobile / cell phones to the list, hoping to give as broad a sweep of devices and software as I can. 




Any and all suggestions and information would be welcome.  




Grainne Long, Chief Executive of the Irish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (ISPCC), said parents must set boundaries and structures for their children’s internet use.   She also said if they (the parents) were uncertain about the technology being used, they should call into stores where staff can advise them.




I think Ms Long's is an excellent suggestion. 



We could expand it to ringing the suppliers of all our devices, and arranging to go into the shop(s) with the whole family's devices, as relevant, with everyone included - all the children, youngsters, young adults, and the PGCs in the house - their help could bring a great deal of clarity.  




The technicians in the shop would know where are all the switches for turning off inappropriate material - films, music videos, television programmes, and given the current zeitgeist they would be keen to make suggestions.  


Most assistants working in these shops are young people, and they are happy to share their information, and to help adults learn how to be in charge of the family's devices. 



They could show apps that are age inappropriate or actually adult material.  I know I'd be very relieved to be helped out by someone working in an electronic goods shop, or a shop supplying all kinds of phones.  We are creatures of habit, and are inclined to stick to the same shop(s) if it has / they have worked out well previously.







Here are FIVE things to consider 

when you are coming up with a





"Stay Involved    Whenever possible, try not to let your child spend their screen time alone. Watch an episode of your child’s favourite programme with them or play with apps together.  Engaging with your child about the media they consume  will help them better understand what they are seeing and learning, and how that applies to the world around them.




"Be Picky    Always make sure  that you  are choosing the highest-quality educational programming possible.     Closely monitor the content your child(ren) is / are consuming and be sure to thoroughly test / research apps before you allow your kid(s) to download them!




"Set Limits   According to the American Academy of Paediatrics, you should avoid using digital media with children 18-24 months old.   For children aged 2 to 5, the American Academy of Paediatrics recommends limiting screen time to 1 hour per day.




"Power Down    Always turn off all devices at least ONE hour before bedtime to help your child “wind down” before sleep.  Turn off the auto-play setting on your video players (Netflix, Hulu, etc) to prevent mindless “binge-watching”.   When you’ve finished using your devices get into the habit of turning them off completely and putting them away.




"Emphasize Family Time     Designate certain times or activities as “device free”, and use that time to connect as a family.  For example, make a rule that no devices can be used during family meals, etc."




[The colouring, highlighting, and underlining of text were added by me, ICOB.]













The details and help with the real and widespread problem of our youngsters and young people gambling is available at the end of this Post.




Introduced on the Site, Teacher Training and Education, by Adrian Sladdin, Director of Education at Young Gamblers Education Trust (YGAM), and gives very helpful information for families which can be found at the address below.  If you have any notion, or are inclined to fear one of your youngsters may be in over his or her head, and you NEED to get a hang on what’s going on NOW.  




Check out the British registered charity, the Young Gamblers Education Trust (known as YGAM) - whose aim is quoted as  "with a social purpose to ‘inform, educate and safeguard young people against problematic gambling & social gaming’."















HAVE PARENTS / GUARDIANS / CARERS made themselves aware of the ubiquitous nature of cyber-bullying, and how extremely damaging it is to any child, young person, or adult?  



Go to for advice for PGCs, teachers, and anyone who should make him or herself knowledgeable about cyber-bullying. 




Parents cannot leave this job to

teachers and the school. 




Your children's and young people's welfare is your concern and has to be your priority.  Young people can become isolated, may self-harm and, in some cases, take their lives.



Some truly cannot live with the constant bullying.




LUKE Culhane (13), from Limerick, Ireland, has a YouTube video entitled 'Cyber Bullying: Create No Hate' which went viral. Luke's video recounts his own experience of being bullied online. 







 Luke was named the 2016 "child of the year" / 'l'enfant de l'année 2016', by French newspaper 'Mon Quotidien' for standing up to cyber-bulling.



Cyber-bullying can happen to anyone on a seemingly random basis.  Frequently, young people keep it to themselves ~ they do not tell parents / guardians / carers (PGCs), and often not even their best friends.  The results of this COWARDLY bullying can be appalling for everyone in the family, not just the selected victim. 




PGCs REALLY NEED to find out about this pernicious activity; when they have informed themselves, they will have a better idea what to look out for in their young people and children.




A conversation on the whole topic, at the dinner table, would make the subject easier for everyone to ask about, and talk about.  Show Luke's YouTube video, even young children will be able to understand its message, and it would be a good starting point for your conversation.












Breaks from school or college are frequently the times when PGCs realize they are living with a creature who does not come out of the bedroom in daylight hours, except for raids on the 'fridge. They realize that this is more than just a teenager needing lots of sleep.




IT IS UNDERSTANDABLE that even when PGCs realise the consequences of their children's late and prolonged use of electronic devices, they have a problem facing up to the glaringly OBVIOUS SOLUTION.




ONCE IT IS DISCOVERED that a young person is over-using electronic devices to the detriment of his / her mental and physical health, relationships and friendships, and his or her wake / sleep balance, something must be done.  If the transition to sleeping nine to ten hours nightly was not made in the last weeks of holidays, young people may still be finding it difficult to manage study and other activities.  It may take longer than anyone expects to break the habit of being awake a good deal of the night with electronic devices, and sleeping through most of the following day.




PARENTS, GUARDIANS, and CARERS MAY HAVE TO make some very unwelcome and drastic decisions which might cause serious friction, in the short to medium-term.  




PERHAPS, having conversations with the PGCs of your children's close friends, to discuss the problem, to try to present a united front, giving PGCs mutual support.   PLUS, the youngsters will see it is not just their  parents BEING REALLY MEAN!




START BY EXPLAINING that this is a HEALTH and MENTAL WELFARE matter, you are not trying to ruin the youngster's life, FOREVER!












[START your RESEARCH with the details of and Links for three Studies on the deleterious mental and physical health consequences of over-use and late night use of blue-light emitting electronic devices.  Please see the last Sections of this Post for more details of these Studies.]




A television in a common room, or in a bedroom, should not be turned on as younger children come in from early childhood education, or as older siblings arrive home from school or college.  Making sure the television is not on, and turning it off if turned on, is one very important, simple, way to start making sure your offspring are not over-loaded with blue-violet light emissions.




It also enables conversations on how the day has gone much easier to have if not competing with the noise and distraction of a television.




For their welfare's sake, teenagers and younger, SHOULD NOT have a television, iPad, smartphone, Kindle, Tablet, or any type of mobile / cell phone on in their bedrooms, after approximately 7.30 - 9.00 pm, depending on age.





There are Rules under the The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989),  (those under 18 years of age), entitling young people to degrees of autonomy.  Currently, there is a discussion on how much right a parent has to take a mobile / cell phone from a teenager.  The discussion is usually based around the idea that those of 15-16 years are entitled to the use and possession of their mobile / cell phone at any time.  


There are arguments worldwide that young people of 13 years are equally entitled.  








'Our minds can be hijacked':  the tech insiders who fear a smartphone dystopia



Please see this Guardian report by Paul Lewis in the last Section of this Post.



"There is growing concern that as well as addicting users, technology is contributing toward so-called “continuous partial attention”, severely limiting people’s ability to focus, and possibly lowering IQ."



The industry insiders who often designed the software, are restriciting their own use of smartphones, etc. 










I know that the reaction from youngsters shall be VERY LOUD, and VERY, VERY, UNHAPPY. 



NO PARENT WANTS TO BE A BADDIE, and the children / youngsters WILL ARGUE OVER AND OVER, that ALL THEIR FRIENDS are allowed to have all these devices in their bedrooms, night and day.




However, Difficult Choices Require

to be Made Now!




Studying on a laptop in the relative quiet of a bedroom is a good habit, but only in conjunction with reference to actual books and deep reading of novels, poetry, histories, biographies.  We must retain an intellectual 'omnivorism'.




However, the laptop, and all its electronic relatives, will have to be removed from the bedroom at 7.30pm to 9.00pm, depending on the ages of the young people, at the discretion of the PGCs.





Having finished study, young people WILL HAVE TO turn their computer off at least 90 minutes before bedtime.  Apart from saving the work, they shall then need to BRING ALL DEVICES down to a common room where they can be checked off, TO ENSURE ALL DEVICES ARE ACCOUNTED FOR, while bearing in mind the rights of young people.




GENERALLY SPEAKING, most young people get a limited number of chances for primary and second level schooling.  If they are chronically exhausted due to inappropriate and overuse of electronic devices, THEIR PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL WILL SUFFER negatively and significantly.



    Eighty-five per cent of parents of young children (aged less than 6 years) said they used screen-based devices to occupy their kids so they could get things done with one in four doing this every day of the week.




*     Teenagers spend the most amount of time on a screen-based device at home, of any age group, at almost 44 hours on average per week – more than the time equivalent of a full time job. Parents averaged almost 40 hours per week. ++



"Not only was educational performance hindered.  Important social skills were also diminished", says Lynette Vernon, lead researcher of this study at Murdoch University in Perth:




"The outcomes of not coping – lower self-esteem, feeling moody, externalising behaviours and less self-regulation, aggressive and delinquent behaviours – the levels increase as sleep problems increased."   **




 We Have to Take Seriously the Well-Documented Difficulties Students Encounter in these Circumstances.




YOUNG PEOPLE DO NOT reach their optimum potential at second level schooling, and this has consequences for the possibility of winning a place in a college or university, or following whatever dreams they have. 




THERE ARE NEGATIVE SIDE EFFECTS for young people of becoming ISOLATED from a social life, if they spend a great deal of their spare time online gaming, gambling, or on X-Box.




VERY IMPORTANT ~ Children and young people NEED three hours of physical activity daily for fitness sake, and also for psychological well-being.







I include below a complete article by Generation Next, which give a fascinating insight on personal development, experiencing emotions, and giving space to both, in a world of people using their devices. What example are adults giving younger people?


By 'Generation Next'

- Aziza Seykota



Parents can often find themselves more distracted by their devices than their teens.  This is especially true during the slow moments throughout our day.  Slow moments are those moments where you can be with your thoughts and feelings, instead of pulling out your phone to check emails, read the news, or scroll through your Facebook feed.



By habitually reaching for our devices during these moments of solitude, we miss out on valuable opportunities to know ourselves better.  



And you are modelling your teens’ relationship with technology by your own relationship with technology.




So What Can we Do?

Small changes towards being more mindful of your relationship with technology can improve the satisfaction and quality of your life as well as in your teens.




Being Mindful can be as simple as focusing on your breath, noticing sounds, smells, or what is going on in your body.  Being Mindful allows us to more clearly see the world around us, reduces stress levels, and develops resilience to deal with life’s difficult moments.  




And by practising Mindfulness we become better Digital Mentors, modelling for our children how to give space to our inner experience, which ultimately leads to healthier relationships with others.





The Satisfactions of Solitude

First, it’s important to remember that we are all in this together.  We live in a culture where a veil of productivity and successful “multi-tasking” is celebrated, and the draw of social connection through texting and online is hard to ignore.




As Markham Heid explains in his article for TIME, “Combine the sudden beep with the implicit promise of new social info, and you have a near-perfect, ignorable stimulus that will pull your focus away from whatever task your brain is working on”.



But in this attention economy, it is important to take time to slow down and be present with our own thoughts,  without reaching for the distraction of technology.   MIT researcher, Sherry Turkle, says that these moments of solitude allow us to know ourselves better, which is an important part of having fulfilling relationships with others. 




'In Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in a Digital Age', she says, “If we don’t have experience with solitude – and this is often the case today – we start to equate loneliness and solitude.  This reflects the impoverishment of our experience. If we don’t know the satisfactions of solitude, we only know the panic of loneliness”.




In today’s hyper-connected world, Turkle says “if we don’t teach our children how to be comfortable being alone, they will learn to be lonely and rely on the distraction of technology.   Part of your role as an Emotion Coach and Digital Mentor is to model the importance of slow moments and to create space for difficult or uncomfortable emotions”.




Experiencing your Emotions

Sometimes uncomfortable emotions will rise to the surface in these moments of solitude.   Reaching for our devices when these emotions come up prevents us from experiencing the richness of the full human experience.   As comedian Louis CK explained during a recent interview on smartphones, “Because we don’t want that first bit of sad, we push it away.  [But] you never feel completely sad or completely happy, you just feel kinda satisfied with your product.”





Read more: Mindful Parenting: How to Raise Kind and Conscious Teens | Generation Next | July 10, 2017 at 3:36 pm | URL:



[The colouring, highlighting of text, etc, was done by me.  ICOB.]








I know it's Scary,

but it's Serious Scary,

and we Need to Face our Responsibilities.






Very Best of Luck!

Regards, Iseult

Iseult Catherine O'Brien



If you see any errors, typographical or factual, or if you disagree with any of my ideas, I should be very glad to hear from you.




This website,, "Education Matters", is where I start my Posts on many subjects in relation to children and young people, their well-being and welfare, including their right, and the right of all, to a decent education.  


My LinkedIn site is


I am an elected Member of The Tutors' Association.


Thanks to Dublin artist, Neil Douglas, at, for kindly letting me use a copy of his vivid, vibrant, painting.









If I quote a person, group, organisation, or establishment, I do my very best to source the material quoted, and to attribute it properly.  If I cannot satisfy myself I have found the author or speaker who voiced a quote, I resist using it, no matter how tasty a bite!  If I refer in passing to views expressed by others, I attribute the views even if they have not been given verbatim in the text.


I work on a basis of goodwill and good intentions.  I shall make errors, being human, and when I do, I apologise now, and should always welcome a correction, which I would insert in the relevant Post prominently, in clear unambiguous text and type, repeating the apology. That's is the best I can do!







Decline in Teen Mental Health Attributed to Late Night Stimulation **



By Dr Ramesh Manocha



The neurological dangers implicated in overusing our devices are well-established.  From the incessant cognitive itching to allay novelty bias to a consistent uptick in distracted driving accidents and deaths to the circadian chaos of excessive blue light, our memory and attention are not the only skills being affected.  While no long-term studies have traced these issues from childhood through adulthood – yet - one simple fact is inarguable: too much screen time is not healthy.



Now a longitudinal study of over an eleven hundred high school students in Australia has revealed another disturbing aspect of technology addiction: a decline in mental health.



Poor sleep due to late-night calling and texting is the culprit.  The group of thirteen to sixteen year-olds saw a stark decrease in performance over a four-year period, from 2010-2013.  While previous research has linked the blue light emitted from phones to poor sleep, and sleep is necessary for optimal health and emotional regulation, this Study is considered the first to link all three, even though anecdotally teachers have noticed increasing sluggishness in their students for years.



"Not only was educational performance hindered.  Important social skills were also diminished", says Lynette Vernon, lead researcher of this study at Murdoch University in Perth:



The outcomes of not coping – lower self-esteem, feeling moody, externalising behaviours and less self-regulation, aggressive and delinquent behaviours – the levels increase as sleep problems increased.



It’s not only the light affecting students, Vernon observes.  Cognitive arousal when receiving a text or social media like also keeps the receiver primed for further reaction at a time when their body and mind should be winding down.  Instead of drifting to sleep their brain remains on alert for the next ding.

- Derek Beres



A download from 'Generation Next'.

Read More: Decline in Teen Mental Health Attributed to Late Night Stimulation



Dr Ramesh Manocha | July 10, 2017  | Tags: late night texting | Categories: Uncategorized | URL:





[Text colouring and highlighting was done by me. ICOB.]






Screen time: What’s happening in our homes?


The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne,

Australian Child Health Poll of 21 June 2017.





The Director of the Australian Child Health Poll, Paediatrician Dr Anthea Rhodes said one of the most significant findings, that directly affected children’s health, was the impact of screen use at bedtime on sleep.



“Almost half of children regularly use screen-based devices at bedtime, with one in four children reporting associated sleep problems. Teenagers using screens routinely at bedtime were also more likely to report experiencing online bullying.  It’s best to have no screen-time an hour before bed and keep screens out of the bedroom, to ensure a better quality of sleep,” she said.



"The poll also reveals that 50 per cent of toddlers and preschoolers are using a screen-based device without supervision.



“The demands of the modern lifestyle mean a lot of parents are busy, so they use screen use as a digital babysitter.  We found that 85 per cent of parents of young children say they use screens to occupy their kids so they can get things done.” Dr Rhodes said.



“There is little evidence to support the idea that screen use benefits the development of infants and toddlers, but physical playtime and face-to-face contact is proven to be critical to a child’s development. If you do offer screen time to your young child, it’s better if you watch it with them, so you can talk together about what they are seeing and help children to learn from the experience.”



When it comes to what’s happening in Australian households, Dr Rhodes said that many families are experiencing conflict over screen use and that a lack of physical activity and excessive use are big concerns to parents.



Dr Rhodes adds that the poll identified a link between parents’ screen use and their children’s use of screens.



“A strong relationship was seen between parents’ screen use and that of their children. Basically, a parent who has high levels of screen use is more likely to have a child with high levels of use. Three quarters of parents of children under six also said they do not put time limits on screen use.



"However, most parents told us that they do try to limit their children’s screen use but are not sure how to do this effectively,” she said.



The current Australian guidelines for screen use in children were last updated in 2014, but Dr Rhodes says new guidelines may go some way in helping parents with their children’s screen use.



“These were developed before the widespread use of mobile screen devices. Up-to-date guidelines and resources for parents, and healthcare workers, would give parents a base for developing healthy habits when it comes to screen use,” she said.



++   The Australian Child Health Poll overall key findings include the following.


*    The majority of Australian children, across all age groups, are exceeding the current national recommended guidelines for screen time.



*        Eighty-five per cent of parents of young children (aged less than 6 years) said they used screen-based devices to occupy their kids so they could get things done with one in four doing this every day of the week.



*     Teenagers spend the most amount of time on a screen-based device at home, of any age group, at almost 44 hours on average per week – more than the time equivalent of a full time job. Parents averaged almost 40 hours per week.



*    Younger children also spend a significant time using screens at home; infants and toddlers averaged 14 hours, the two to five year-olds 26 hours, and the six to 12-year age group averaged 32 hours per week.



Note:   "A screen-based device in this poll was defined as a television, computer, laptop, gaming console, iPhone, smartphone, iPad and other tablet."




[Text highlighted in green added done by me.  ICOB.]





Child Crisis Arizona

Safe Kids, Strong Families





Teen watching TV | Striking the Technology

Balance: How Much TV is Too Much?




A recent study by the American Academy of Paediatrics shows that increasing consumption of digital media by children could be having a negative impact on their development.




How much TV is too much?

These days, technology is hard to avoid.  Smartphones have made it so that a full library of videos, games and other digital content is available for use anytime, anywhere at the flick of a finger.  The pervasiveness of the Internet, TV, computer and video games in our daily lives also means that technology is competing for our children’s attention at younger and younger ages.  In the United States, the average infant starts watching TV at only 5 months old and 82% of children will go online before they enter the 7th grade.



While technology can be a powerful learning tool for children, when used in excess it can actually have a negative impact on a child’s development.  Multiple studies have shown that infants exposed to two or more hours of screen time before their first birthday makes them six times more likely to experience poor language development (my italics).  Studies have also linked excessive television watching in children with a higher likelihood developing cognitive and social / emotional delays, obesity, and sleep disorders (my italics).




Children using a phone unsupervised

This isn’t to say that parents should get rid of their TVs, smart phones and tablets.  Well-constructed educational programming or apps can be great learning aids for young children.  Sesame Street, for example, has been shown to have a positive impact on the cognitive, literary and social development of 3- to 5-year-olds.  The real challenge for parents is to find programming that truly is useful and educational, and also to strike just the right balance of screen time for their child.  Knowing where to draw that line isn’t always easy, but parents can start to find that balance by being more mindful of the kind / quantity of digital media their child(ren) is exposed to and coming up with a family media plan that dictates when and how technology will be used at home.



Here are FIVE things to consider when you are coming up with a media plan for your family




Stay Involved.   Whenever possible, try not to let your child spend their screen time alone.  Watch an episode of your child’s favourite programme with them or play with apps together.  Engaging with your child about the media they consume will help them better understand what they are seeing and learning, and how that applies to the world around them.



Be Picky.   Always make sure that you are choosing the highest-quality educational programming possible.  Closely monitor the content your child(ren) is / are consuming and be sure to thoroughly test / research apps before you allow your kid(s) to download them!



Set Limits.   According to the American Academy of Paediatrics, you should avoid using digital media with children 18-24 months old.  For children aged 2 to 5, the American Academy of Paediatrics recommends limiting screen time to 1 hour per day.



Power Down.   Always turn off all devices at least 1 hour before bedtime to help your child “wind down” before sleep.  Turn off the auto-play setting on your video players (Netflix, Hulu, etc) to prevent mindless “binge-watching”.  When you’ve finished using your devices get into the habit of turning them off completely and putting them away.



Emphasize Family Time.   Designate certain times or activities as “device free” and use that time to connect as a family.  For example, make a rule that no devices can be used during family dinners, etc.







'Our minds can be hijacked', Guardian article by Paul Lewis

Photograph of painting by Dublin Artist, Neil Douglas,
Courtesy of the Artist.




'Our minds can be hijacked': the tech insiders who fear a smartphone dystopia




By Paul Lewis in San Francisco


'The Guardian', Weekend magazine technology special

Friday 6 October 2017 06.00 BST

Last modified on Monday 9 October 2017 20.23 BST



[The text was highlighted in various shades of green by me. ICOB.]




"Google, Twitter and Facebook workers who helped make technology so addictive are disconnecting themselves from the internet.  Paul Lewis reports on the Silicon Valley refuseniks alarmed by a race for human attention.



"Justin Rosenstein had tweaked his laptop’s operating system to block Reddit, banned himself from Snapchat, which he compares to heroin, and imposed limits on his use of Facebook.  But even that wasn’t enough.  In August, the 34-year-old tech executive took a more radical step to restrict his use of social media and other addictive technologies.



"Rosenstein purchased a new iPhone and instructed his assistant to set up a parental-control feature to prevent him from downloading any apps.



"He was particularly aware of the allure of Facebook “likes”, which he describes as “bright dings of pseudo-pleasure” that can be as hollow as they are seductive.  And Rosenstein should know: he was the Facebook engineer who created the “like” button in the first place.



"A decade after he stayed up all night coding a prototype of what was then called an “awesome” button,  Rosenstein belongs to a small but growing band of Silicon Valley heretics who complain about the rise of the so-called “attention economy”: an internet shaped around the demands of an advertising economy.



"These refuseniks are rarely founders or chief executives, who have little incentive to deviate from the mantra that their companies are making the world a better place.  Instead, they tend to have worked a rung or two down the corporate ladder: designers, engineers and product managers who, like Rosenstein, several years ago put in place the building blocks of a digital world from which they are now trying to disentangle themselves.  “It is very common,”  Rosenstein says, “for humans to develop things with the best of intentions and for them to have unintended, negative consequences.”


"Rosenstein, who also helped create Gchat during a stint at Google, and now leads a San Francisco-based company that improves office productivity, appears most concerned about the psychological effects on people who, research shows, touch, swipe or tap their phone 2,617 times a day."



[Young Gamblers Education Trust (YGAM), is a registered charity in Britain, and they can help -]




"There is growing concern that as well as addicting users, technology is contributing toward so-called “continuous partial attention”, severely limiting people’s ability to focus, and possibly lowering IQ.  One recent study showed that the mere presence of smartphones damages cognitive capacity – even when the device is turned off. “Everyone is distracted,” Rosenstein says. “All of the time.”



"But those concerns are trivial compared with the devastating impact upon the political system that some of Rosenstein’s peers believe can be attributed to the rise of social media and the attention-based market that drives it.



"Drawing a straight line between addiction to social media and political earthquakes like Brexit and the rise of Donald Trump, they contend that digital forces have completely upended the political system and, left unchecked, could even render democracy as we know it obsolete.



"In 2007, Rosenstein was one of a small group of Facebook employees who decided to create a path of least resistance – a single click – to “send little bits of positivity” across the platform.  Facebook’s “like” feature was, Rosenstein says, “wildly” successful: engagement soared as people enjoyed the short-term boost they got from giving or receiving social affirmation, while Facebook harvested valuable data about the preferences of users that could be sold to advertisers.  The idea was soon copied by Twitter, with its heart-shaped “likes” (previously star-shaped “favourites”), Instagram, and countless other apps and websites.



"It was Rosenstein’s colleague, Leah Pearlman, then a product manager at Facebook and on the team that created the Facebook “like”, who announced the feature in a 2009 blogpost.  Now 35 and an illustrator, Pearlman confirmed via email that she, too, has grown disaffected with Facebook “likes” and other addictive feedback loops.  She has installed a web browser plug-in to eradicate her Facebook news feed, and hired a social media manager to monitor her Facebook page so that she doesn’t have to.



"Justin Rosenstein, the former Google and Facebook engineer who helped build the ‘like’ button: ‘Everyone is distracted. All of the time.’



“One reason I think it is particularly important for us to talk about this now is that we may be the last generation that can remember life before,” Rosenstein says.  It may or may not be relevant that Rosenstein, Pearlman, and most of the tech insiders questioning today’s attention economy are in their 30s, members of the last generation that can remember a world in which telephones were plugged into walls.



"It is revealing that many of these younger technologists are weaning themselves off their own products, sending their children to elite Silicon Valley schools where iPhones, iPads and even laptops are banned.  They appear to be abiding by a Biggie Smalls lyric from their own youth about the perils of dealing crack cocaine: never get high on your own supply.



"One morning in April this year, designers, programmers and tech entrepreneurs from across the world gathered at a conference centre on the shore of the San Francisco Bay.  They had each paid up to $1,700 to learn how to manipulate people into habitual use of their products, on a course curated by conference organiser Nir Eyal.



"Eyal, 39, the author of Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products, has spent several years consulting for the tech industry, teaching techniques he developed by closely studying how the Silicon Valley giants operate.



Are smartphones really making our children sad?

“The technologies we use have turned into compulsions, if not full-fledged addictions,” Eyal writes.  “It’s the impulse to check a message notification.  It’s the pull to visit YouTube, Facebook, or Twitter for just a few minutes, only to find yourself still tapping and scrolling an hour later.”  None of this is an accident, he writes.  It is all “just as their designers intended”.



"He explains the subtle psychological tricks that can be used to make people develop habits, such as varying the rewards people receive to create “a craving”, or exploiting negative emotions that can act as “triggers”.  “Feelings of boredom, loneliness, frustration, confusion and indecisiveness often instigate a slight pain or irritation and prompt an almost instantaneous and often mindless action to quell the negative sensation,” Eyal writes.



"Attendees of the 2017 Habit Summit might have been surprised when Eyal walked on stage to announce that this year’s keynote speech was about “something a little different”.  He wanted to address the growing concern that technological manipulation was somehow harmful or immoral.  He told his audience that they should be careful not to abuse persuasive design, and wary of crossing a line into coercion.



"But he was defensive of the techniques he teaches, and dismissive of those who compare tech addiction to drugs.  “We’re not freebasing Facebook and injecting Instagram here,” he said.  He flashed up a slide of a shelf filled with sugary baked goods.  “Just as we shouldn’t blame the baker for making such delicious treats, we can’t blame tech makers for making their products so good we want to use them,” he said.  “Of course that’s what tech companies will do.  And frankly: do we want it any other way?”



"Without irony, Eyal finished his talk with some personal tips for resisting the lure of technology.  He told his audience he uses a Chrome extension, called DF YouTube, “which scrubs out a lot of those external triggers” he writes about in his book, and recommended an app called Pocket Points that “rewards you for staying off your phone when you need to focus”."





The following is edited text copied from the YGAM website   


Copyright © 2017 YGAM Innovations, All rights reserved.



YGAM delivers its social purpose and derives social benefit for the UK through the delivery of the following three YGAM products.



Train the Trainer Workshops

YGAM delivers accredited training to teachers, youth workers, community mental health colleagues, prison & probation colleagues and community volunteers, enablingthem to deliver the YGAM gambling-related harm-prevention programme.  This YGAM programme and its resources have been accredited by Ofqual provider, ASDAN; quality-assured by the PSHE Association and YGAM has secured the prestigious Pearson Assured quality mark.



Peer Education projects YGAM works in partnership with universities to train year two & three students to become YGAM peer mentors.  Trained peer mentors are then employed part-time to deliver a range of gambling-related harm prevention programmes and awareness campaigns within their universities and local communities.




Through the delivery of the above two products, a programme of research into the attitudes, thinking and behaviours of young people and gambling / social gaming will be created to establish a global research network, specifically targeting teenagers and young adults.


Additionally, YGAM will work with our research partners to undertake both qualitative and quantitative research into the effectiveness and impact of the YGAM products.



Youth Gambling

Gambling is everywhere. Young people walk past betting shops, bill-boards, buy lottery tickets or scratchcards, and see gambling companies sponsoring major sporting events every day.  On their mobile phones they have access, not only to traditional betting and casino-style gambling, but also to social games with a gambling element.



While many people – the majority – enjoy gambling as a social activity, for others it can become a terrible addiction; contributing to a mental health condition, creating huge financial pressure and hardship, and in many cases destroying young lives.



At YGAM, we help schools, colleges, universities, and youth organisations educate young people to make smart choices, understand risk and prevent harm. Research into youth gambling (participation, attitudes, thinking, behaviours and harm) is still a new area of work in the UK and to that end there are still a number of ‘known, unknowns’.  YGAM is not a lobbying charity and we do not seek to influence how gambling is regulated in the UK. 






[I introduced all the colour in this Section,  ICOB.]



ESRI Longitudinal Study on Early Mobile Phone Ownership

Copyright : Илья Бурдун





Evidence from a longitudinal study SERAPHIM DEMPSEY,





EVIDENCE FOR POLICY ESRI Research Bulletin 2019/03



Later is better: Mobile phone ownership and child academic development, evidence from a longitudinal study1 Seraphim Dempsey (ESRI), Seán Lyons (ESRI), Selina McCoy (ESRI)*



ESRI (The Economic and Social Research Institute) Research Bulletins provide short summaries of work published by ESRI researchers and overviews of thematic areas covered by ESRI programmes of research. Bulletins are designed to be easily accessible to a wide readership.




Children are increasingly getting access to mobile phones, and mobile phone ownership is now occurring at a time in children’s lives where their literacy and numeracy skills are developing. We examine whether there is an association between early mobile phone ownership and academic outcomes and whether delaying mobile phone ownership benefits the development of children’s academic skills. The mobility of mobile phone technology allows it to have a potentially unprecedented impact on children’s development. It can seamlessly cross into school and home settings; it is difficult for parents and teachers to supervise and monitor usage, as it accompanies the child throughout the day; and, consequently, the frequency of engagement with mobile phone technology is likely to be far higher for than other forms of technology.




How does mobile phone ownership impact on children in Ireland?

Earlier research from other countries, while limited in scale and scope, has suggested that mobile phone use may have a negative impact through cognitive overload, increased distraction and altering memory and learning patterns. Studies have also shown that phones can reduce both sleep duration and sleep quality, which is also likely to impact on children’s academic progress.





the findings from Dempsey, S., Lyons, S. and McCoy S., 2018, “Later is Better: Mobile phone ownership and child academic development, evidence from a longitudinal study”, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, online 20 December 2018.


Available online:



This research was supported by the ESRI's Programme of Research in Communications, which is in turn funded by contributions from Ireland’s Department of Communications, Climate Action and Environment and the Commission on Communications Regulation (ComReg).


* Corresponding author:




Using data on 8,500 9-year-old children in Ireland from Growing Up in Ireland, we examine how children with longer or shorter periods of mobile phone ownership performed on standardised reading and maths tests.


Given how well each child was performing at age 9 and taking into account many of their characteristics, we can see if those who received phones later than age 9 performed better or worse at age 13 than those who already had phones at age 9.


Children’s access to mobile phones is influenced by their family and school characteristics, with more highly educated parents and those with higher incomes less likely to provide phones at this young age. We take account of the characteristics of children who receive phones in looking at how early ownership shapes children’s academic development. Children attending more socially disadvantaged schools are more likely to have phones, all else being equal.




In both reading and maths, children who already report owning a phone by the age of nine fare less well in terms of their academic development as they move into adolescence.


The negative association with academic outcomes persists across socio-economic groups. The shortfall for early-adopters in both reading and maths scores at age thirteen equates to about a 4 percentile lower level of exam performance.



The findings suggest that there may be significant educational costs arising from early mobile phone use by children. Parents and policymakers should consider whether the benefits of phone availability for children are sufficiently large to justify such costs.



Recently, the then Minister for Education and Skills, Richard Bruton, asked schools to consult with parents and students to make decisions on the place of smart phones and personal devices in school. The intention is to promote a shared approach regarding the appropriate use of digital technologies. The approach is novel, and the evidence from this research may help schools in making decisions on whether access to mobile devices should be restricted.



Whitaker Square, Sir John Rogerson’s Quay, Dublin 2.

Telephone +353 1 863 2000.   Email

Web       Twitter @ESRIDublin


Go to for general information on The Economic and Social Research Institute.





Colouring of text and highlighting of headings was added by me, ICOB.